This is a 2-part article. In this first part, the most important studies on internal test bias with respect to racial groups in the item-level, subtest-level and construct-level are reviewed. The proposed causes will be discussed. Generally, the most commonly used IQ tests aren’t biased or only minimally biased as to be of no practical value.
Sex bias was also found in this vocabulary test, but it cancelled out due to about even numbers of items each direction. https://openpsych.net/paper/62/